Premessa la mia ignoranza:
Dato che Calleman dice che il 28 ottobre 2011 è la data a cui si riferivano i Maya,da dove nasce la data 21dic 2012?
Possibile inoltre che nessuno, senza scomodare Calleman,non tenga in considerazione il cambiamento di calendario avvenuto nel 46 a.c. ?
(e non ho considerato quello gregoriano)
Grazie per delucidazioni.
I calendari occidentali si correlano col calendario maya usando il giorno giuliano della data di partenza del corrente ciclo di creazione 18.104.22.168.0 4 Ajaw, 8 Kumk'u.[
Diehl (2004, p.186)
Viene riferito come la costante di correlazione. La costante generalmente accettata è la Thompson 2 modificata “Goodman, Martinez, Thompson” – GMT di 584,283 giorni. Usando la correlazione GMT la creazione corrente è iniziata il 6 settembre 3114 AC (Giuliano) o 11 agosto nel calendario Gregoriano Proleptico. Lo studio della correlazione tra i due calendari si chiama questione di correlazione. In Breaking the Maya Code, Michael Coe ha scritto
“Nonostante oceani di inchiostro sul soggetto, non c'è la minima possibilita che questi tre studiosi (che usano la GMT per la correlazione) si sbaglino”
L'evienza della correlazione GMT è storica, astronomica e archeologica:
…Historical: Calendar Round dates with a corresponding Julian date are recorded in Diego de Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatán, the Chronicle of Oxcutzkab and the books of Chilam Balam. Oxcutzkab and de Landa record a date that is a Tun ending. Regarding these historical references in The Skywatchers Aveni writes: “All the assembled data are consistent with the equation November 2, 1539 = 22.214.171.124.0. Thus for the GMT, or 11.16 correlation we find that A = 584,283…”. The fall of the capital city of the Aztec Empire, Tenochtitlan, occurred on August 13, 1521. A number of different chroniclers wrote that this was a Tzolk'in (Tonalpohualli) of 1 Snake. Post-conquest scholars such as Sahagun and Duran recorded Aztec calendar dates with a calendar date. Many indigenous Guatemalan communities, principally those speaking the Mayan languages known as Ixil, Mam, Pokomchí, and Quiché, keep the Tzolk'in and (in many cases) the Haab' and in Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico These are all consistent with the GMT correlation.
Astronomical: Any correct correlation must match the astronomical content of classic inscriptions. The GMT correlation does an excellent job of matching lunar data in the supplementary series. For example: An inscription at the Temple of the Sun at Palenque records that on Long Count 126.96.36.199.8 there were 26 days completed in a 30 day lunation. This Long Count is also the entry date for the eclipse table of the Dresden Codex [n 5] which gives eclipse seasons when the Moon is near its ascending or descending node and an eclipse is likely to occur. Dates converted using the GMT correlation fall roughly in this eclipse season. The Dresden Codex contains a Venus table which records the heliacal risings of Venus. The GMT correlation agrees with these to within a few days which is as accurately as these could have been observed by the ancient Maya.
Archaeological: Various items that can be associated with specific Long Count dates have been isotope dated. In 1959 the University of Pennsylvania carbon dated samples from ten wood lintels from Tikal. These were carved with a date equivalent to 741 AD using the GMT correlation. The average carbon date was 746±34 years.
If a proposed correlation only has to agree with one of these lines of evidence there could be numerous other possibilities. Astronomers have proposed many correlations, for example: Lounsbury, Fuls, et. al., Böhm and Böhm and Stock.
Today, 15:00, Thursday January 12, 2012 (UTC), in the Long Count is 188.8.131.52.16 (GMT correlation).
2012 e lungo computo
Secondo il Popol Vuh viviamo il quarto mondo. Descrive le prime tre creazioni fallite degi dei e la crazione del quarto mondo riuscito dove è stato messo l'uomo. Nel lungo computo maya la precedente creazione è finita all'inizio del 14th b'ak'tun.
La creazione precedente è finita sul lungo computo di 184.108.40.206.19. Altro 220.127.116.11.19 avverra il 20 dicembre 2012 e inizera poi il 14th b'ak'tun 18.104.22.168.0 il 21 dicembre 2012 (^ Maya chronology: The correlation question by J. Eric Thompson http://www.mesoweb.com/publications/CAA_14/Thompson1935.pdf )
C'è solo un riferimento alla creazione corrente nel corpo frammentario maya di Tortughero (http://ilfattostorico.com/2011/12/08/linah-riconosce-un-secondo-riferimento-maya-al-2012/ L’INAH riconosce un secondo riferimento maya al 2012)
Le iscrizioni a volte si riferiscono ad eventi futuri o commemorazioni in date oltre il 2012..
..Maya inscriptions occasionally reference future predicted events or commemorations that would occur on dates that lie beyond 2012 (that is, beyond the completion of the 13th b'ak'tun of the current era). Most of these are in the form of “distance dates” where some Long Count date is given, together with a Distance Number that is to be added to the Long Count date to arrive at this future date.
For example, on the west panel at the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, a section of the text projects into the future to the 80th Calendar Round (CR) 'anniversary' of the famous Palenque ruler K'inich Janaab' Pakal's accession to the throne (Pakal's accession occurred on a Calendar Round date 5 Lamat 1 Mol, at Long Count 22.214.171.124.8 equivalent to 27 July 615 CE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar).[n 8] It does this by commencing with Pakal's birthdate 126.96.36.199.0 8 Ajaw 13 Pop (24 March 603 CE Gregorian) and adding to it the Distance Number 10.11.10.5.8. This calculation arrives at the 80th Calendar Round since his accession, a day that also has a CR date of 5 Lamat 1 Mol, but which lies over 4,000 years in the future from Pakal's time—the day 21 October in the year 4772. The inscription notes that this day would fall eight days after the completion of the 1st piktun [since the creation or zero date of the Long Count system], where the piktun is the next-highest order above the b'ak'tun in the Long Count. If the completion date of that piktun—13 October 4772—were to be written out in Long Count notation, it could be represented as 188.8.131.52.0.0. The 80th CR anniversary date, eight days later, would be 184.108.40.206.0.8 5 Lamat 1 Mol.
Despite the publicity generated by the 2012 date, Susan Milbrath, curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, stated that “We have no record or knowledge that [the Maya] would think the world would come to an end” in 2012. “For the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle,” says Sandra Noble, executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies in Crystal River, Florida. To render December 21, 2012, as a doomsday event or moment of cosmic shifting, she says, is “a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in.” “There will be another cycle,” says E. Wyllys Andrews V, director of the Tulane University Middle American Research Institute (MARI). “We know the Maya thought there was one before this, and that implies they were comfortable with the idea of another one after this.”
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^ Freidel, Schele & Parker (1993, pp.59–75).
^ Boot, p. 2.
^ Vincent H. Malmström, Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon (Chapter 6) Malmström's Gregorian dates are three or four days later than a correlation of 584283 would give (the Wikipedia table has been corrected).
^ Diehl (2004, p.186).
^ “A sketch of prior documentation of epi-Olmec texts”, Section 5 in Peréz de Lara & Justeson (2005).
^ Coe & Koontz (2002, p.87)
^ Maya chronology: The correlation question by J. Eric Thompson
^ Maya Hieroglyphic Writing by Sir John Eric Sidney Thompson
^ Clarifications: The Correlation Debate
^ The Correlation Problem
^ What is this correlation constant?
^ Breaking the Maya Code, 1992, p. 114.
^ Anthony F. Aveni, The Sky Watchers, 201, pp. 208–210.
^ Barbara Tedlock, Time and the Highland Maya Revised edition (1992 Page 1)
^ Miles, Susanna W, “An Analysis of the Modern Middle American Calendars: A Study in Conservation.” In Acculturation in the Americas. Edited by Sol Tax, pp. 273–84. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1952.
^ The Supplementary and Lunar Glyphs
^ Fuls, Ancient Mesoamerica, 18 (2007), 273–282 Cambridge University Press. after Robertson 1991: Vol. 4 : p. 95.
^ The Dresden Codex eclipse table by Michael John Finley
^ Thompson, J. Eric S. (1950). Maya Hieroglyphic Writing, an Introduction. Page 236
^ “Sighting the Crescent Moon”, Sky & Telescope, July 1994, 14
^ “In Quest of the Youngest Moon”, Sky & Telescope, December 1996, 104–105
^ “Young Moons and the Islamic Calendar”, Sky & Telescope, December 1996, 106
^ “Seeking Thin Crescent Moons”, Sky & Telescope, February 2004, 102–106
^ “Young-Moon Hunting in 2005”, Sky and Telescope, February 2005, 75–76
^ Andreas Fuls Ancient Mesoamerica, 18 (2007), 273–282 Cambridge University Press.
^ “Review of radiocarbon dates from Tikal and the Maya calendar correlation problem” by Elizabeth K. Ralph
^ Academic Confusion by John Major Jenkins
^ The Correlation Question by Andreas Fuls
^ Mayan Dating by Vladimir Böhm and Bohumil Böhm
^ Dating the Eclipse Table of the Dresden Codex and the Correlation Problem
^ Freidel, Schele & Parker (1993, p. 63)
^ Schele & Freidel (1990, pp.429–430
^ Schele and Friedel (1992).
^ a b Schele (1992, pp.93–95)
^ Schele & Freidel (1990, p.430 n.39)
^ a b Susan Milbrath, Curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology, Florida Museum of Natural History, quoted in USA Today, Wednesday, March 28, 2007, p. 11D
^ “The Sky Is Not Falling” New Wave, Tulane University, June 25, 2008.
^ Fig. 444 in Wagner (2006, p.283)
^ Schele and Freidel (1992, p.430).